People tend to behave in ways that they believe other people approve of, and avoid those behaviors they think others disapprove of.  This normative social influence is based on the fundamental human need to be liked and accepted by others. Furthermore, people’s behavior can also be shaped by informational social influence.[1]


Transnational law includes “all law which regulates actions or events that transcend national frontiers.”[2]


        See generally, Itzchak E. Kornfeld, Mesopotamia: A History of Water and Law, in Joseph W. Dellapenna & Joyeeta Gupta (eds.), The Evolution of Law and Politics of Water (2008) 21; Robbie Sabel, The Jordan Basin: Evolution of the Rules, Dellapenna & Gupta ibid 263; Pieter van der Zaag, Southern Africa: Evolving Regional Water Law and Politics, Dellapenna & Gupta ibid 245; Eyal Benvenisti, Asian Traditions and Management of Water Resources: Ancient Practices Informing Regional Cooperation, (Asian Law Inst.) Proceedings of the Role of Law in a Developing Asia (2004) 617; Eyal Benvenisti, Sharing Transboundary Resources: International Law and Optimal Resource Use (2002).

[3]           See e.g., Natasha Gilbert, African Agriculture: Dirt Poor, 498 Nature (2012) 525, available at; Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Livestock Environment and Development (LEAD), South & Central America (Undated),

[4]           See generally, Leah H. Martinez, Post Industrial Revolution Human activity and Climate Change: Why the United States Must Implement Mandatory Limits Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 20 J Land Use (2005) 407; Robbie Watts, Instustrialisation, Povery and Climate Change in Odisha: Institute of Development Studies Case Study 4 (undated), 04_Odisha.pdf.

[5]           See generally, Australian Government department of Agriculture, Drought and Rural Assistance (Last Reviewed July 1, 2014); Jahangir Alam, et al., Monitoring Meteorological and Agricultural Drought Dynamics in [the] Barind Region [of] Bangladesh Using [the] Standard Precipitation Index and [the] Markov Chain Model, 3 International J of Geomatics and Geosciences (2013) 511, available at 143.pdf.

[6]           Jonathan Thompson, Drought, Glen Canyon Dam, Climate Change and God: Stopping by the dam during a days-long experimental flood, it’s clear that even this massive feat of engineering can’t fix the arid West, High Country News, (Nov. 18, 2013),  (“We’re now 14 years into the current drought, the driest 14 years of the past century.”); Eric Holthaus, The California Drought Isn’t Going Anywhere, Slate (Oct. 16, 2014), (“For a state racked by drought, there couldn’t be much worse news.  ‘California’s record-setting drought will likely persist or intensify in large parts of the state . . .’”).

[7]           See e.g., Itzchak E. Kornfeld, A Global Water Apartheid: From Revelation to Resolution, 43 Vand J Transnat’l L (2010) 701; Stephen C. McCaffrey, A Human Right to Water: Domestic and International Implications, 5 Geo. Int’l Envtl. L R (1992) 1, 5 – 8.

[8]           See generally, Ganapati Information Technology Services, Ganga [Ganges] India’s National River (2006), and map of Ganga.  (“Ganga [The Ganges River] finds its name in the list of the five most polluted rivers of the world. In certain areas in Ganga River the bacteria levels are more than 100 times higher than the limits set by the government. From washing clothes to dumping bodies, the river’s purity is maligned every day and in spite of the alarming levels of pollution, people continue to use the water to drink and take a bath.”)  (Emphasis added).

[9]           See e.g., Papua New Guinea Department of National Planning and Monitoring & the United Nations Development Programme in Papua New Guinea, Papua New Guinea – Millennium Development Goals Second National Progress Comprehensive Report for Papua New Guinea (2010) 10, 201, Comprehensive%20Report%202010.pdf.

It has been estimated that about five percent of the total biodiversity of the world can be found in P[apua] N[ew] G[uina] However, the physical environment is under increasing threat from a variety of factors such as certain agricultural practices (land clearing for commercial and traditional agriculture) as well as resource extraction projects such as mining and harvesting of timber. A large proportion of the total land area has now been modified by erosion . . .

It may be assumed that much unwarranted [forest] destruction remains undetected.  ‘Destruction of residual tree crops and the unwarranted damaging of soils and saplings through large disturbance are some factors that will affect sustainability.’”)


[1]           Henk Aarts et. al, Automatic Normative Behavior in Environments: The Moderating Role of Conformity in Activating Situational Norms, 21 Social Cognition (2003) 447, 448.

[2]           Philip C.  Jessup, Transnational Law (Extracts), in Philip C. Jessup’s Transnational Law Revisited–On the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of its Publication, (Christian Tietje, Alan Brouder, and Karsten Nowrot eds. 2006.), 45-55. Halle-Wittenberg: Martin-Luther-Universitat. (accessed April 18, 2011).

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